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Muslims are forbidden to eat the flesh of swine, blood, somthing that was killed by another animal, somthing killed accidentally or by being beated, and food that was slaughtered by some one other than the people of the book.
say: I do not find in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden for an eater to eat of except that it be what has died of itself, or blood poured forth, or flesh of swine– for that surely is unclean– or that which is a transgression, other than (the name of) Allah having been invoked on it; but whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring nor exceeding the limit, then surely your lord is forgiving, merciful (6:145).
Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. this day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear me. this day have i perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you and chosen for you islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely allah is forgiving, merciful (5:3)
And do not eat of that on which allah’s name has not been mentioned, and that is most surely a transgression; and most surely the shaitans suggest to their friends that they should contend with you; and if you obey them, you shall most surely be polytheists (6:121)
The ayat above states that swine is unclean, which is why we cannot eat it. We cannot eat anything that wasent slaughtered correctly because it means that you were not thinking of allah when the animal was killed, and the animal was not meant for being killed for meat. We also cannot eat meat that was slaughtered by somone other than the people of the book because the devil contends with you if you do, and you may obey the devil and become a polytheist.Also, the meat may have been slaughtered for one of their idols, meat that we surley would not want to eat and become a transgressor.
The reason we cannot eat hore or donkey meat is because the quran did not grant permission to.
“And (He has created) horses, mules and donkeys, for you to ride and as an adornment” (16:8).
Allah is he who made the cattle for you that you may ride on some of them, and some of them you eat. 40:79
When Allah refered to donkeys and horses it was explicitly said that they were made for riding on, period. As for cows, its gives permission to eat it says we may ride and eat them while it only said we may ride horses and donkeys.
some religous scholers say that this is not enough to label horses and donkeys are haram, for that to be true it must directly say they are haram, this rather makes them makrooh (disliked) to eat.
Islam aims to purify human both body and soul. Thus it give some guidelines to what we eat.
As a general guideline, Muslims are not allowed to eat vicious animals like lion, shark etc whether they are on land or in water. There is also a natural tendency, not to eat these kind of animals.
Swine has characteristics of both vicious animals as well as tame ones. Thus it can be cause of confusion. Thus, Allah gave a judgment about it that it is forbidden.